What Is Gluten?

What is Gluten?

Gluten (from Latin gluten "glue") is a protein composite that appears in foods processed from wheat and related species, including barley and rye. Gluten gives elasticity to dough, helping it to rise, to keep its shape, and often, giving the final product a chewy texture.

Gluten is the composite of both a 'Prolamin' proteins and a 'Glutelin' proteins, they exist, together with starch, in the endosperm of various grass-related grains.

'GLIADINS', are prolamins that are water-soluble, and 'GLUTENINS', are glutelins that are water-insoluble, they compose about 80% of the protein contained in wheat seed.

 Being insoluble in water, they can be purified by washing away the associated starch. Worldwide, gluten is a source of protein, both in foods prepared directly from sources containing it, and as an additive to foods otherwise low in protein.

The seeds of most flowering plants have endosperms with stored protein to nourish embryonic plants during germination.

True gluten, with 'GLIADIN' and 'GLUTENIN', is limited to certain members of the grass family which includes the staple food grains and cereal crops grown around the world

The stored proteins of maize and rice are sometimes called glutens, but their proteins differ from wheat gluten by lacking 'GLIADIN'.

Grains which do not have gluten proteins include wild rice, corn, buckwheat, millet, amaranth, quinoa, teff,  soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

OATS are the only cereal containing a globulin or legume-like protein, 'AVENIN'.

'AVENIN' is a prolamine that is toxic to the intestinal mucosa of some coeliacs who are avenin sensitive, it can trigger a reaction in these coeliacs.

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